The shocking story behind Richard Nixon’s ‘War on Drugs’ that targeted blacks and anti-war activists

Scholar @Mark_J_Perry   June 14, 2018

This Sunday, June 17 will mark the 47th anniversary of a shameful day in US history — it’s when President Richard Nixon’s declared what has been the US government’s longest and costliest war — the epic failure known as the War on Drugs. At a press conference on that day in 1971, Nixon identified drug abuse as “public enemy number one in the United States” and launched a failed, costly and inhumane federal war on Americans that continues to today. Early the following year, Nixon created the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement (ODALE) in January 1972 to wage a government war on otherwise peaceful and innocent Americans who voluntarily chose to ingest plants, weeds, and intoxicants proscribed by the government. In July 1973, ODALE was consolidated, along with several other federal drug agencies, into the newly established Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a new “super agency” to handle all aspects of the War on Drugs Otherwise Peaceful Americans.

But as John Ehrlichman, Nixon’s counsel and Assistant for Domestic Affairs, revealed in 1994, the real public enemy in 1971 wasn’t really drugs or drug abuse. Rather the real enemies of the Nixon administration were the anti-war left and blacks, and the War on Drugs was designed as an evil, deceptive and sinister policy to wage a war on those two groups. In an article in the April 2016 issue of The Atlantic (“Legalize It All: How to win the war on drugs“) author and reporter Dan Baum explains how “John Ehrlichman, the Watergate co-conspirator, unlocked for me one of the great mysteries of modern American history: How did the United States entangle itself in a policy of drug prohibition that has yielded so much misery and so few good results?” As Baum discovered, here’s the dirty and disgusting secret to that great mystery of what must be the most expensive, shameful, and reprehensible failed government policy in US history.

Americans have been criminalizing psychoactive substances since San Francisco’s anti-opium law of 1875, but it was Ehrlichman’s boss, Richard Nixon, who declared the first “War on Drugs” in 1971 and set the country on the wildly punitive and counterproductive path it still pursues. I’d tracked Ehrlichman, who had been Nixon’s domestic-policy adviser, to an engineering firm in Atlanta, where he was working on minority recruitment. At the time, I was writing a book about the politics of drug prohibition. I started to ask Ehrlichman a series of earnest, wonky questions that he impatiently waved away.

“You want to know what this was really all about?” he asked with the bluntness of a man who, after public disgrace and a stretch in federal prison, had little left to protect. “The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or blacks, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course we did.”

Nixon’s invention of the War on Drugs as a political tool was cynical, but every president since — Democrat and Republican alike — has found it equally useful for one reason or another. Meanwhile, the growing cost of the Drug War is now impossible to ignore: billions of dollars wasted, bloodshed in Latin America and on the streets of our own cities, and millions of lives destroyed by draconian punishment that doesn’t end at the prison gate; one of every eight black men has been disenfranchised because of a felony conviction.

MP: As much as Prohibition (The War on Alcohol) was also an expensive, epic and misguided failure of government policy, it didn’t have its origins in any type of equivalent sinister and evil plot like the War on Drugs to destroy enemies of the Woodrow Wilson administration in 1919. In fact, President Wilson vetoed the Volstead Act, the popular name for the National Prohibition Act, but the House and Senate both voted quickly to override the veto and America started the War on Alchohol Otherwise Peaceful Americans Who Voluntarily Chose to Ingest Beer, Wine, and Spirits in 1920.

If the real goal of the War on Drugs was to target, convict and incarcerate subversive anti-war “hippies” and black Americans, as Ehrlichman describes it, it sure worked as the chart above of the male incarceration rate in the US shows. During the nearly 50-year period between 1925 and the early 1970s, the male incarceration rate was remarkably stable at about 200 men per 100,000 population, or 1 US male per 500, according to data from Bureau of Justice Statistics. By 1986, about a decade after the War on Drugs started locking up drug users and dealers in cages, the male incarceration rate doubled to 400 per 100,000 population. Then within another decade, the male incarceration rate doubled again to more than 800 by 1996 before reaching a historic peak of 956 in 2008 (about one in 100) that was almost five times higher than the stable rate before the War on Drugs. The arrest and incarceration data show that the War on Drugs had a significantly much greater negative effect on blacks and Hispanics than whites, making the Drug War even more shameful for its devastating and disproportionate adverse effects on America’s most vulnerable and disadvantaged populations.

Since the 2008 peak, the male incarceration rate has been gradually declining in each of the last seven years of available data through 2016, possibly because of three trends: a) decriminalization of weeds at the city and state level, b) the legalization of medical weeds at the state level, and c) now legalization of recreational weeds at the city and state levels.

While there could have been other factors that contributed to the nearly five-fold increase in the male incarceration rate between the early 1970s and the peak in 2008, research clearly shows that the War on Drugs, along with mandatory minimum sentencing in the 1980s and the disparate treatment of powdered cocaine and “crack cocaine” (powdered cocaine processed with baking soda into smokable rocks) were all significant contributing factors to the unprecedented rate of incarcerating Americans. Here are some conclusions from the 2014 book The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences (my emphasis):

  1. The states’ combined incarceration rates increased across all crime categories between 1980 and 2010 (see chart above). Most striking, however, is the dramatic increase in the incarceration rate for drug-related crimes. In 1980, imprisonment for drug offenses was rare, with a combined state incarceration rate of 15 per 100,000 population. By 2010, the drug incarceration rate had increased nearly 10-fold to 143 per 100,000. Indeed, the rate of incarceration for the single category of drug-related offenses, excluding local jails and federal prisons, by itself exceeds by 50% the average incarceration rate for all crimes of Western European countries and is twice the average incarceration rate for all crimes of a significant number of European countries.
  2. Arrest rates for federal drug offenses climbed in the 1970s, and mandatory prison time for these offenses became more common in the 1980s. Mandatory prison sentences, intensified enforcement of drug laws, and long sentences contributed not only to overall high rates of incarceration but also especially to extraordinary rates of incarceration in black and Latino communities. Intensified enforcement of drug laws subjected blacks, more than whites, to new mandatory minimum sentences—despite lower levels of drug use and no higher demonstrated levels of trafficking among the black than the white population.
  3. As a result of the lengthening of sentences and greatly expanded drug law enforcement and imprisonment for drug offenses, criminal defendants became more likely to be sentenced to prison and remained there significantly longer than in the past. The policy shifts that propelled the growth in incarceration had disproportionately large effects on African Americans and Latinos. Indeed, serving time in prison has become a normal life event among recent birth cohorts of African American men who have not completed high school.

Bottom Line: Even without the nefarious, vile, and veiled origins revealed by Ehrlichman in 1994, the War on Drugs Otherwise Peaceful Americans Who Voluntarily Choose To Ingest or Sell Intoxicants Currently Proscribed by the Government, Which Will Lock Up Users or Sellers in Cages if Caught would represent one of the most shameful chapters in America’s history. But with its intention to destroy the black community and anti-war peace activists, which has certainly been “successfully” achieved for the black community, the shamefulness of the War on Drugs is elevated to a much higher level of despicable, evil immorality.

Mark J. Perry

Mark J. Perry

Scholar

CONTINUE READING…

This Day In History: December 7, 1941

PICTURE THIS! 1941 PICTURES OF PEARL HARBOR

ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR

RADIO BROADCASTS FROM DECEMBER 7, 1941

For some reason, I NEVER forget when the Seventh Day of December comes around each year.

December 7, 1941 sticks to my memory like glue.

I may not know what the date is on any other given day of the year, but I sure know when it is December 7th.

I had not yet even been born, but my Father had been 24 years earlier and was about to get the ultimate education of his life.

With the bombing of Pearl Harbor came not only the deaths of the thousands which lost their lives on that fateful day in the Harbor, but the start of a war which would virtually never end and cost many more thousands of Servicemen to lose their lives in Countries all over the world of which many had never even heard of until they ended up in boats on the shores of those countries.

On October 10, 1941 Kenneth E. Hardesty was inducted into the Army where he served as a PFC in the 389th Air Service Squadron until January 2, 1946.  He was my Father.

Attack at Pearl Harbor, 1941

Some of Kentucky’s Pearl Harbor survivors plan to meet Friday

Published: December 6, 2012

By Jim Warren — jwarren@herald-leader.com

Traveling isn’t easy when you’re in your 90s, but some survivors of Pearl Harbor say they will gather in Lexington once more on Friday to mark the 71st anniversary of the attack that drew America into World War II.

Vaughn Drake of Lexington and Jon Toy of Mount Sterling, both 94, said they’ll attend the Pearl Harbor Commemorative Association’s annual Pearl Harbor Day luncheon Friday, and they expect that fellow survivor Herman Horn, 92, of Frankfort will be there too.

Friday’s luncheon will include ceremonies to honor Pearl Harbor survivors and others who served during World War II.

The keynote speaker will be historian Thomas R. Emerson, a former assistant Kentucky attorney general.

Gov. Steve Beshear has issued a proclamation designating Dec. 7, 2012, as Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day in Kentucky.

The commemorative buffet luncheon in Lexington will be held at noon Friday at the Oleika Shrine Temple, 326 Southland Drive.

Drake, Horn and Toy were young men when Japanese planes swooped down over Pearl Harbor, on the island of Oahu in Hawaii, on the fateful morning of Dec. 7, 1941. Now, they are among a dwindling few witnesses of that history-making moment who are alive to tell younger generations about it.

Drake said he apparently is the last Pearl Harbor survivor living in Lexington.

Toy, who heads the Kentucky Chapter of the Pearl Harbor Survivors Association, said there are only 10 survivors on the chapter’s membership list. There were 15 a year ago.

“There are a few others still out there that we don’t know about because they never joined the chapter,” Toy said. “But a lot of us have gone. We’re becoming part of history.”

Toy said the chapter once had more than 150 members. Chapter members continue to meet each year in the spring and fall, but it’s becoming more and more difficult for them to travel, he said.

The national Pearl Harbor Survivors Association disbanded on Dec. 31, 2011, after the 70th Pearl Harbor anniversary observance. Association officials said members simply were too old and too few to continue. Local chapters, such as the one in Kentucky, are free to carry on as long as they have members, but without the support of a national organization.

Eventually, Toy said, it will be up to the sons and daughters of survivors to carry on.

Vaughn Drake was a U.S. Army engineer at a camp on Oahu when the Japanese attacked 71 years ago Friday. One enemy plane, hit by gunfire, crashed near where Drake was standing, and he later recovered a small piece of the wreckage, which he still has.

“We couldn’t believe it, even though it was happening right in front of our eyes,” Drake said in a 1991 interview.

Horn and some other soldiers jumped into a truck that morning and headed for a distant anti-aircraft battery, planning to use its gun against the attacking planes. On the way, they had to stop repeatedly and take cover when Japanese fighters strafed them.

“We didn’t fire one shot. … We were very, very lucky,” Horn said in an interview a few years ago.

Jim Warren: (859) 231-3255.

Read more here

On this day in history: 19 November 1863

Words of Lincoln console nation

On 19 November 1863 President Abraham Lincoln dedicated a cemetery on a Civil War battlefield where 51,000 Confederate and Union soldiers

were lost or wounded after just three days of fighting.  Most Americans cannot hear the name of the Pennsylvania town of Gettysburg without

thinking of Lincoln’s famous speech on that occasion.

 

“It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task

remaining before us… that this nation, under God,

shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government

of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not

perish from the earth “  President Abraham Lincoln

 

"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, on this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition

that all men are created equal.”

“Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure.

We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting-place for those who

here gave their lives, that that nation might live.

It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate – we cannot

hallow – this ground.

The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract.

The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here.

It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.

It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us – that from these honored dead we take increased devotion

to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion – that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain – that

this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that

government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

Humphrey Marshall (1812-1872)

http://guymanningham.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Marshall-vs-Clay.jpg

1809 –  . Senator Humphrey Marshall vs. Representative Henry Clay

At the Kentucky General Assembly, Clay introduces a resolution requiring members to wear homespun suits rather than import their duds from Britain. Only two members voted against the patriotic measure. One of them, Humphrey Marshall, was not a fan of Clay’s politics… or his fashion sense apparently. Clay challenges him to a duel. Clay grazes Marshall once just below the chest, while Marshall hit Clay once in the thigh. Both men live.

 

The papers of Humphrey Marshall (1812-1872) span the years 1771-2002, with the bulk of the material dating from 1846 to 1856. The papers are arranged alphabetically by type of material or topic and chronologically therein. All of the papers are photocopies and micofiche except for one 1867 letter.

The majority of the collection consists of the correspondence of Humphrey Marshall II (1812-1872), lawyer, army officer, United States representative from Kentucky, and Confederate States of America representative from Virginia. Most of the letters relate to slavery, states rights, steam safety of river boats, protectionism for the hemp industry, and Kentucky politics.

The collection also features letters between Marshall and Matthew Calbraith Perry, 1853-1854, pertaining to keeping American ships in Chinese waters to protect Western lives and property during the Taiping Rebellion. Marshall served as commissioner to China at the time. Other letters from the period contain references about American trade with China. Microfiche of executive documents in a House of Representatives file contain additional correspondence relating to Marshall’s stint in China as well as letters relating to Perry’s naval expedition to Japan.

The correspondence files also contain a few letters of other members of the Marshall family, including Marshall’s son, Humphrey Marshall III. He wrote several letters in 1921 in defense of his father’s reputation after an unflattering article appeared in the Louisville Herald. An item worthy of mention is a letter dating September 12, 1840, of I. H. Holman, who was present at the Battle of the Thames during the War of 1812, responding to the elder Marshall’s questions about the conduct of William Henry Harrison during that battle. Correspondents include John H. Aulick, John J. Crittenden, Jefferson Davis, Millard Fillmore, Walter Newman Haldeman, Isham G. Harris, George Law, John McLean, Matthew Calbraith Perry, William B. Reed, Alexander Hamilton Stephens, Bayard Taylor, and Daniel Webster.

Other papers in the collection treat Marshall’s service in the Mexican War, his legal career, and his speeches while serving as a member of the House of Representatives. The collection contains two diaries of Marshall. The first pertains to his tenure as commissioner in China, and the second documents his flight from Richmond on April 2, 1865, the day the Confederate capital fell, and his subsequent travels through the South. The collection also includes a few papers of Supreme Court Justice John McLean, including his autobiography. Marshall was interested in writing a history of McLean’s life. Featured as well is a file containing a letter of Patrick Henry to George Rogers Clark and a Virginia land grant issued by Henry while governor. Many of the items in the collection include notes and emendations by the donor, William E. McLaughry.

CONTINUE READING….

James Higdon’s “The Cornbread Mafia: A Homegrown Syndicate’s Code of Silence and the Biggest Marijuana Bust in American History”

press release

April 16, 2012, 3:57 p.m. EDT

James Higdon’s “The Cornbread Mafia: A Homegrown Syndicate’s Code of Silence and the Biggest Marijuana Bust in American History” Available This Week

NEW YORK, NY, Apr 16, 2012 (MARKETWIRE via COMTEX) — ATTENTION JOURNALISTS AND PRODUCERS: 4/20 — “The Pot Holiday” — is this week! James Higdon is the perfect choice for any conversation about marijuana legalization. Call now to schedule an interview.

In the summer of 1987, Johnny Boone set out to grow and harvest one of the greatest outdoor marijuana crops in modern times. In doing so, he set into motion a series of events that defined him and his associates as the largest homegrown marijuana syndicate in American history, also known as the Cornbread Mafia.

Author James Higdon — whose relationship with Johnny Boone, currently a federal fugitive, made him the first journalist subpoenaed under the Obama administration — takes readers back to the 1970s and ’80s and the clash between federal and local law enforcement and a band of Kentucky farmers with moonshine and pride in their bloodlines. By 1989 the task force assigned to take down men like Johnny Boone had arrested sixty-nine men and one woman from busts on twenty-nine farms in ten states, and seized two hundred tons of pot. Of the seventy individuals arrested, zero talked. How it all went down is a tale of Mafia-style storylines emanating from the Bluegrass State, and populated by Vietnam veterans and weed-loving characters caught up in Tarantino-level violence and heartbreaking altruism. This work of dogged investigative journalism and history is told by Higdon in action-packed, colorful and riveting detail.

“James Higdon has written a compelling, fast-moving saga about how a backwoods band of outlaws, begat by Kentucky moonshiners of the 1920s, took over the marijuana business in the Midwest and led the Feds on the biggest pot chase in American history.” –Bruce Porter, author of BLOW: How a Small-Town Boy Made $100 Million with the Medellin Cocaine Cartel and Lost It All

James Higdon has worked for the Courier-Journal in Louisville and the New York Times, contributed to The Prairie Home Companion, researched the NYPD counter-terrorism and intelligence divisions for the new CBS series NYC 22 (produced by Robert De Niro and Jane Rosenthal), and is currently a contributing editor with PBS Frontline’s Tehran Bureau.

The Cornbread Mafia: A Homegrown Syndicate’s Code of Silence and the Biggest Marijuana Bust in American History Lyons Press – April 2012 – Cloth — 400 pages – $24.95 – ISBN-13: 978-0762778232

        
        Media Inquiries:
        Ellen Trachtenberg
        610-212-1823
        Email Contact
        
        
        


SOURCE: Globe Pequot Press

The 1918 “Flu Pandemic” was in fact an act of war upon the U.S. by the German’s…

Category: Sheree Krider

Published Date Written by Sheree Krider

1918 F L U  P A N D E M I C….

Thru this link is a piece of history that has been all but forgotten. 

The 1918 Flu Pandemic was not your usual air borne "flu".  It was in fact an act of war by Germany upon the American people.

 

Read the first chapter for free thru this link. My Grandmother died at age 23 in 1919 when my Father was two years old of this
horrid plague which was in fact a weapon of war started by the Germans in 1918. Created and brought to the USA via U-Boats
which landed in the Boston Harbor, in vials which were sneaked out in the dark of night and let loose in crowds of people.
An eyewitness, an elderly woman, said she saw a "greasy looking cloud which crept over the harbor"…

"The fascinating, true story of the world’s deadliest disease. In 1918, the Great Flu Epidemic felled the young and healthy virtually overnight.

An estimated forty million people died as the epidemic raged. Children were left orphaned and families were devastated. As many American sold…"

Martin Osborne writes: I watch a program which showed that the Americans retrieved the original virus from frozen bodies in the arctic ??
Sheree Krider: I sure would like to have a link to that!
Sheree Krider: And I would not doubt it for a moment.
Martin Osborne: Don’t have a link for you but it’s well documented that they have used these samples to produce the original virus,you can probably google it.

They have also patented cannabinoids that counteract the virus.

Robert Melamede has also mentioned that cannabinoids can protect you from it.The US goverment is patenting lots of parts of the cannabis plant.

Sheree Krider

This post is dedicated to my Grandmother Anna May Fackler (who died of this pandemic in 1919) and Grandfather Eugene Abraham Hardesty…

BE SURE TO READ THE FIRST CHAPTER THRU THE LINK – IT IS FREE.

THIS SHOULD NEVER BE FORGOTTEN AND SHOULD BE TAUGHT TO OUR CHILDREN!

Kentucky

Influenza first appeared in Kentucky about September 27th. On that date, troops traveling from Texas on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad stopped off in Bowling Green.

There, soldiers left the train to explore the city. They infected several local citizens before returning to the train and traveling on.

A black and white panoramic, aerial view of a portion of the state of Kentucky.

Base Hospital, Camp Zachary Taylor, Ky. [Credit: The Library of Congress]

When the flu appeared in Louisville, local officials did not submit a report for the cases which they had. Yet the situation in Louisville clearly dire, as the Public Health Service calculated that the city had about 1,000 cases during late September. The decision by the PHS to calculate Louisville’s figures is unusual. Generally, the PHS did not calculate mortality or morbidity numbers for different cities. Their decision to do do for Lousville probably indicates that there were a significant number of cases in the city by that time.

By the second and third week of the epidemic, Louisville was experiencing about 180 deaths a week from influenza. The situation continued to be bad throughout the fall and into December. On December 12th, a local health officer sent a telegram to Surgeon General Rupert Blue requesting that the PHS take charge of the city until the epidemic passed.

A military camp located near Louisville, Camp Taylor, was harder hit than the city itself. This was because the disease tended to strike younger people more aggressively. Enlisted men at the camp totaled approximately 40,000 soldiers. These men were from Kentucky and Indiana. During the week of October 19th, there were 3,772 cases at Camp Taylor alone, which would indicate an extremely high rate of infection.

A black and white panoramic, aerial view of Camp Zachary Taylor in Kentucky.

Camp Zachary Taylor. (Spelled) by placing soldiers in shape of letters] c.1919 [Credit: The Library of Congress]

Lexington was not as hard hit as other areas of the state. It was, for example, significantly less hard hit than Louisville. However, the situation there, as across the state, was still serious. On October 6th, the Kentucky state board was forced to issue a state-wide proclamation closing "all places of amusement, schools, churches and other places of assembly."

Overall, the PHS said that "the situation in central and western Kentucky remained good but…the situation in Carter, Breathitt and Harlan Counties and around the mining camps was bad."

In Webster County, Doy Lee Lovan said that the impact of the flu epidemic was especially dramatic as it was combined with a smallpox epidemic there. One person from every house on his street died as a result of one disease or the other.

In Pike County, Kentucky, a miner noted that "It was the saddest lookin’ time then that ever you saw in your life. My brother lived over there in the camps then and I was working over there and I was dropping cars onto the team pole. And that, that epidemic broke out and people went to dyin’ and there just four and five dyin’ every night dyin’ right there in the camps, every night. And I began goin’ over there, my brother and all his family took down with it, what’d they call it, the flu? Yeah, 1918 flu. And, uh, when I’d get over there I’d ride my horse and, and go over there in the evening and I’d stay with my brother about three hours and do what I could to help ’em. And every one of them was in the bed and sometimes Doctor Preston would come while I was there, he was the doctor. And he said "I’m a tryin’ to save their lives but I’m afraid I’m not going to."And they were so bad off. And, and every, nearly every porch, every porch that I’d look at had–would have a casket box a sittin’ on it. And men a diggin’ graves just as hard as they could and the mines had to shut down there wasn’t a nary a man, there wasn’t a, there wasn’t a mine arunnin’ a lump of coal or runnin’ no work. Stayed that away for about six weeks."

The pandemic peaked in the fall of 1918 but influenza remained prevalent throughout the state during the winter and spring of 1919.

Anton Casimir Dilger (13 February 1884 – 17 October 1918) was a German-American physician and the main proponent of the German biological warfare sabotage program during World War I. His father, Hubert Dilger, was a United States Army captain who had won the Medal of Honor for his work as an artilleryman at the Battle of Chancellorsville (1863) during the American Civil War.[1]

America was the only target of German biological sabotage to which Dilger traveled, but Romania, Norway, Spain, and South America were all wartime targets. Dilger was the only known individual with the required medical knowledge to have presided over the program in Germany, even if he was not directly involved with each country. The methods of inoculating livestock became more advanced as the war progressed, going from crude needles to capillary tubes of bacterial culture hidden inside sugar cubes.

The effects of the German effort to sabotage neutral support of Allied countries is unknown. No reports have been made of disease outbreaks among livestock, so it is not yet known whether the cultures used were pathogenic or even viable. Certainly the unprofessional method in which the U.S. stevedores inoculated horses would have given rise to accidents, but none are reported. That alone is cause for suspicion among researchers of the cultures used. Indeed, in the war treaties signed in the wake of World War I, no specific provisions were made for the prohibition of biological warfare, so it is presumed that officials either did not know about the German effort, or did not consider it a serious threat.

*

http://elliotlakenews.wordpress.com/2006/1…h-flu-man-made/
By Henry Makow Ph.D.
In 1948 Heinrich Mueller, the former head of the Gestapo, told his CIA Interrogator that the most devastating plague in human history was man-made.
He was referring to the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 that infected 20% of the world’s population and killed between 60 and 100 million people. This is roughly 3 times as many as were killed and wounded in World War One, and is comparable to WWII losses, yet this modern plague has slipped down the memory hole.Mueller said the flu started as a US army bacteriological warfare weapon that somehow infected US army ranks at Camp Riley KS in March 1918, and spread around the world. He says that it “got out of control” but we cannot discount the horrible possibility that the “Spanish Flu” was a deliberate elite depopulation measure, and that it could be used again. Researchers have found connections between it and the current “Bird Flu.”
At a 1944 Nazi bacteriological warfare conference in Berlin, General Walter Schreiber, Chief of the Medical Corps of the German Army told Mueller that he had spent two months in the US in 1927 conferring with his counterparts. They told him that the “so-called double blow virus” (i.e. Spanish Flu) was developed and used during the 1914 war. “But,” according to Mueller, “it got out of control and instead of killing the Germans who had surrendered by then, it turned back on you, and nearly everybody else.” (”Gestapo Chief: The 1948 CIA Interrogation of Heinrich Mueller” Vol. 2 by Gregory Douglas, p. 106)

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