Drug trafficking targeted

 

Marijuana

 

COLUMBUS — The Ohio Highway Patrol joined forces Sept. 27-29 with state police forces in Michigan, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Indiana in an effort to combat drug trafficking through a marijuana interdiction and eradication enforcement blitz.

This successful enforcement effort netted 32 felony and 152 misdemeanor marijuana-related drug arrests. The agencies also seized more than 94,000 grams of marijuana and a total of 14,126 marijuana plants.

"Successful multi-agency enforcement efforts, like the one this past weekend, illustrate the collective power of making our roadways and communities safer for everyone," said Col. John Born, Ohio Highway Patrol superintendent.

During one traffic stop, an Ohio Highway Patrol trooper stopped a 2012 Ford Fusion for a turn-signal violation on Interstate 75 and U.S. 68 at 2:20 a.m. Sept. 27.

Troopers observed criminal indicators and a Hancock County drug-sniffing canine alerted to the vehicle. A probable-cause search revealed half a pound of hydroponic marijuana in the vehicle’s trunk, concealed inside of a light fixture box. Troopers also located drug paraphernalia and prescription pills.

This multi-agency enforcement effort is part of the Six State Trooper Project aimed at providing combined and coordinated law enforcement and security services in the areas of highway safety, criminal patrol and intelligence sharing.

The patrol continues to urge motorists to call 677 to report impaired drivers or drug activity.

CONTINUE READING…

This was a working “HEMP” Farm that was a mile away from my home in Louisville KY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AGRICULTURE AT FARMINGTON IN THE 1810-1840 PERIOD

The Farmington Hemp Farm in Louisville, Kentucky

  • Farmington was a 550-acre hemp plantation. Hemp was the principal cash crop, but not the only one. No Kentucky plantations were single crop operations. Diversified farming was the norm. One reason for this was the drastically fluctuating price for hemp sales.
  • Tobacco was grown at Farmington in some years. By 1840, vinegar, and possibly cider, produced from what must have been a fairly large orchard, were also sold.
  • Butter was produced in large enough quantities for it to be sold at the downtown Louisville market. Butter making was Lucy Speed’s responsibility. In 1840 Farmington had a herd of 17 ‘milch cows.’
  • Other seed crops at Farmington in 1840 included corn and timothy and clover hay. Wheat had also been grown at one point.
  • Crops grown for consumption at Farmington in 1840 included corn, Irish potatoes, apples, cabbages, peas and beans, and sugar beets. Raspberries and peaches were also mentioned in letters. Probably a wide variety of fruits and vegetables were grown in smaller quantities for seasonal consumption by the Speed family.
  • Livestock and fowl for consumption included pigs, cattle, turkey, chickens, and ducks.
  • Large quantities of potatoes, cabbages, sugar beets, and salted pork listed in the inventory suggest that these constituted the main portion of the diet for enslaved African Americans at Farmington. (This correlates with T.W. Bullitt’s account of the slave diet at Oxmoor.)
  • Agricultural outbuildings thought to have existed at Farmington include a hemp house (no doubt a brick or stone building), corn cribs, and probably several barns.

HEMP FARMING IN KENTUCKY AND AT FARMINGTON

  • Hemp was introduced into Kentucky with the earliest settlers. By the early 19th century it had become a significant cash crop with production centered in the Bluegrass and with large amounts also grown in Shelby, Mason and Jefferson counties. These areas had the richest soil, which was needed for high yields.
  • Hemp farming was extremely labor intensive, requiring extensive amounts of backbreaking work. Hemp, as it was produced in Kentucky, was dependent on a slave economy.
  • Kentucky’s 19th-century hemp crop was used to produce cordage and rough bagging for the baling of the cotton crop in the deep south. Kentucky’s dew-rotted hemp was of inferior quality, could never compete with imported water-rotted hemp, and was unsuccessful for marine uses.
  • The price of hemp fluctuated wildly making it difficult to rely on. ($330/ton in 1810; $60/ton in 1822; $180/ton in 1936; $80/ton in 1837)
  • Hemp production in Kentucky began to decline dramatically during and after the Civil War. Union forces prevented its river transport and demand was reduced because of reduced cotton production. After the war, new methods of baling cotton using iron bands became prevalent. Also, the end of slavery made finding an adequate labor force difficult.
  • From the 1870s through World War II hemp was grown in small quantities in Kentucky with several surges in production prompted by various short-lived demands. During this time Kentucky production was overtaken by hemp grown in Wisconsin where mechanized harvesting had been introduced. In Kentucky, methods of growing and harvesting hemp never changed from those developed in the early 19th century when John Speed was growing hemp.
  • Increasing concerns over the use of hemp for marijuana production led to a government prohibition on its production.

GROWING AND HARVESTING HEMP 

  • Hemp was planted in mid-April through May in well prepared soil that had been plowed, harrowed and rolled. The growing season was 100 to 120 days.
  • Hemp grown for seed was treated differently from hemp grown for the fibers or "lint."
  • Seed hemp was planted first in the very richest soil. Seeds were planted in hills and seedlings were thinned as they grew to about 8"high. They were thinned again as the male plants were identified, with most male plants being removed, leaving only a few for pollination. Often the tops of the female plants were lopped off to create branching and the production of more seed.
  • Plants were usually ready for harvesting in early September when they were carefully cut down near the ground with hemp hooks and dried. The seed was collected by flailing the stalks on a clean sheet. The chaff was then either blown away or separated from the seed by sifting. The seed was stored for the next year’s plants.
  • Fiber hemp was planted later and seeded more thickly. Stalks grew very tall and close together, thereby preventing the growth of many weeds, causing lower leaves to die off, and creating longer lengths of the desirable fibers. These plants grew 6′ to 10′ high. These plants, also, were cut down with hemp hooks.
  • Fiber hemp was left lying in the fields for "dew rotting" so that the gums that caused the fibers in the stalks to adhere to the outer casing would dissolve. After enough rotting had occurred, the stalks were gathered into stacks to dry them out and to await the breaking process that usually began shortly after Christmas.
  • So-called "hemp breaks" were dragged out in the fields to the stacks, where handfuls of the stalks were repeatedly bashed between the two parts of the break to shatter the outer casing and reveal the desired fibers. Initial cleaning was accomplished by whipping the fibers against the break to knock out remaining bits of the stalk (herds). The fibers were bundled in the field and weighed back at the hemp house. Later they were run through a "hackle," similar to a large and rougher looking carder, to further clean and align the fibers.
  • The fibers or "lint" were spun into a rough yarn and then either twisted into rope or woven on a simple hand loom into very rough cloth referred to as "bagging."
  • All these tasks were performed by enslaved African Americans who worked on their owner’s plantation or were leased for hemp production. The work was grueling, back-breaking labor, made more unpleasant by the dust and pollen stirred up as the hemp was processed. Many of the hemp workers were reported to have developed awful coughs that took months to go away.
  • Traditionally in Kentucky, hemp harvesting was assigned as task work to the enslaved African Americans. There were daily quotas for the amount of harvesting to be done and the amount of lint to be processed at the break. These varied depending on the age of the workers. Above and beyond the required amount, slaves were paid a small amount for extra production.
  • The Hemp Crop at Farmington in 1840

The 1840 inventory provides a number of clues about hemp production at Farmington at the time John Speed died.

  • Approximately 90 acres were used for the hemp crop that year, 87 for producing the fiber hemp and about another 3 for growing seed hemp (calculated by Otteson based on the quantity of seed listed).
  • The two sheets for cleaning hemp seed document the use of the typical method of obtaining the seed.
  • The 20 hemp hooks and 21 hemp breaks suggest that about 20 hands were employed in the production of hemp at Farmington.
  • References in the settlement of John Speed’s estate document the presence of a rope walk and weaving house at Farmington where the hemp was processed for sale. The "jack screw" in the inventory is probably the piece of equipment used at the end of the rope walk to twist the strands of hemp into rope. Why no looms are listed in the inventory is somewhat confusing.
  • In 1840, $9,154 was made at Farmington from the sale of hemp products.

PLEASE CONTINUE TO THE “EDISON HOUSE” SITE THRU THIS LINK…

Jake Graves used to be a Kentucky hemp farmer, but that was 50 years ago

Jake Graves used to be a Kentucky hemp farmer, but that was 50 years ago. Now he’s out front in the battle to bring the crop back. He calls it one of our unalienable rights — "the freedom to farm."

Jacob Hughes Graves III is one of Kentucky’s native sons. He can trace his family in America back to the 1600s and lives in the grand old plantation home in Lexington built by his great-grandfather in 1852. Hemp farming in his family goes back at least 200 years. He has nine children and 17 grandchildren and at age 70, he is probably one of the few Kentucky hemp farmers still around. "The Last of the Mohicans," Graves calls himself.

He went to war in 1944 and when he returned a year later, he harvested his last crop. Though the Kentucky Hemp Growers Cooperative Association had been organized to help in the war effort, hemp production declined dramatically following war’s end and the Co-op was disbanded. But in 1994 with the emergence of a modern hemp marketplace, it was reincorporated to assist state farmers in reestablishing the industry. Jake Graves was named Co-op President.

He is a venerated figure throughout the state. In addition to being the owner and operator of picturesque Leafland Farm where he makes his home, he has served as Chairman of the Board of two banks and been a member of the board of trustees for three universities including the University of Kentucky. People value Jake Graves’ opinion. He knows farming. He is also glib and gets to the point quickly.

"This is business," he says in his sonorous Southern drawl. "There aren’t many crops that can shelter, clothe and feed you, and leave the soil in good condition. The world needs it."

He doesn’t have a lot patience for the anti-hemp rhetoric that concentrates on the evils of marijuana. "The Co-op has no interest in changing any of the laws pertaining to marijuana other than to distinguish it from industrial hemp," he says.

But if the subject does come up, he has a stock answer which is mighty hard to debate: "When you’re sittin’ at home with your family and having bowl of popcorn, does it pop into your mind that a bottle of whiskey comes from the same source? You got all different kinds of corn–feed corn, calico corn, white corn. That’s what I’m tryin’ to tell you about fiber hemp." You can’t argue with the common sense of a farmer.

There’s a long history of farmer sense to be had when you talk about hemp in Kentucky. In 1787, an item appeared in the Kentucky Gazette submitted by a female reader encouraging Kentuckians to avoid imports and grow their own food and fiber crops, especially hemp. "Shall we not be as comfortable and lovely clothed in homespun as in foreign lace and brocade?" she asked.

Many other newspaper articles and advertisements from the era indicate that horses, paper, food and even that old standby, money, were offered in trade for hemp. By the 1800s, hemp stood as the premier cash crop for Kentucky farmers. Many historians claim Kentucky was our nation’s leader in hemp production. It’s no secret why. Kentucky is known for its high-quality soil, reliable rainfall and abundant sunshine.

But the same combination of factors which hurt the industry in other states damaged Kentucky’s hemp industry during the early 1900s. Declining prices, labor scarcity, competition from other fiber crops and synthetic materials, as well as, industrial and socioeconomic upheavals, all contributed to a gradual decline of hemp farming which was only slightly alleviated by a brief period of production during World War II.

Today, however, Kentucky farmers are poised to revitalize the hemp industry. They are pioneers, part of a long and honorable American tradition of self-reliance, thrift and respect for Nature’s bounty. Their vehicle is the reborn Kentucky Hemp Growers Co-op.

The primary function of the Co-op is to serve as a clearinghouse through which farmers may negotiate and contract with different industries. Graves believes that farmers need to act cooperatively in a unified group in order to participate in the hemp industry on any equitable basis. He also says, "The farmer must have some say in how the industry evolves and what direction it takes."

The Co-op is not just a farmers’ think tank either. Late last spring, Co-op Executive Director Joe Hickey mounted a comprehensive hemp fiber conference in Lexington. Farmers and researchers alike attended, as did textile spinners and weavers, equipment manufacturers, paper processors and a host of politicians and public policy makers.

At the public forum that was scheduled at the end of the conference, Graves spoke first, invoking hemp’s prominent place in Kentucky history and the legacy of hemp in his own family. He then retired to the back of the conference hall to listen to others talk of the legitimate value that hemp offers our nation. While speakers aired glowing reports of the crop’s possibilities, the mood in the room grew buoyant–and the farmer’s smile on Jake Graves’ face grew wider. By the end of the forum, his smile had turned into a triumphant chuckle.

Jake Graves’ dreams of a Kentucky hemp comeback are very much alive.

Written by: Jerry Roberts

APRONSTORE Organic Hemp Aprons

CONTINUE READING….


RELATED LINKS:

Dad raised hemp for rope production, not for smoking, after World War II 5:43 PM, Sep 8, 2012

John Newport,  Springfield

 

http://stevemarkwell.com/images/rescuetripmar2009/061.jpg

 

Festival-goers celebrate hemp’s diversity” (News-Leader, Sep. 3) brought back memories. In 1946, I was living on a farm in south central Kentucky, and one spring day a couple of “feds” came by and asked my dad and the farmer on an adjoining farm if they would raise a few acres of hemp and harvest the seed.

The seeds were being grown for export to the Phillipines, where hemp had been a main crop before the war, and was used to make rope. As a result of the war, hemp seeds in the Phillipines were either in short supply, or nonexistent. My dad and the other farmer agreed to raise some hemp, and were well paid to do so.

The feds specified how the seeds were to be planted — in crossed rows, which made it possible to cultivate for weed control by plowing from east to west and from north to south.

They also specified how the seeds were to be “thrashed” by hand, and said that all stalks and leaves were to be burned immediately after the seeds had been gathered — which we thought was somewhat unusual.

Gathering and piling up the stalks, which were about 8 feet high, and burning them turned out to be the hardest part of the job.

My dad smoked his home-grown tobacco, and the thought of smoking some hemp leaves probably never occurred to him. However, the farmer on the adjoining farm didn’t smoke tobacco, and he smoked some hemp leaves — one time, he said.

He said the strange feelings he had after smoking hemp were such that he was afraid of something different, and worse, happening if he smoked it again.

Each summer for the next three years, the feds came by and looked for any hemp plants that might have grown from seeds lost in the “thrashing” process, and from being carried by birds far from the areas where the hemp had been grown.

Today, when I hear about people growing marijuana, I think, “Been there, done that.”

CONTINUE READING…

Judge tosses 150 pounds of marijuana over GPS use in Kentucky

 

image

 

LOUISVILLE — When Kentucky State Troopers stopped 49-year-old Robert Dale Lee on Interstate 75 in September 2011, they knew he would be coming their way and what to look for in his car.

The Drug Enforcement Administration had been following Lee’s car from Chicago using a GPS — a tracking device placed on the vehicle as part of a multi-state drug probe — and troopers found 150 lbs of marijuana in his car.

Now, a federal judge has ruled the stash inadmissible in the case against Lee because the DEA and troopers didn’t have a warrant to place the device on the car.

“In this case, the DEA agents had their fishing poles out to catch Lee,” Judge Amul R. Thapar wrote. “Admittedly, the agents did not intend to break the law. But, they installed a GPS device on Lee’s car without a warrant in the hope that something might turn up.”

Lee is charged with conspiracy to distribute marijuana. No trial date has been set. His attorney, Michael Murphy of Lexington, did not immediately return a message seeking comment Wednesday.

Kyle Edelen, a spokesman for the U.S. Attorney’s office in Lexington, said prosecutors are reviewing the ruling and evaluating whether to appeal Thapar’s decision.

The U.S. Supreme Court in January struck down law enforcement’s use of GPS tracking in investigations without a warrant. Justice Antonin Scalia wrote for the 5-member majority that it was the attachment of the device that violated the Fourth Amendment’s protection against unreasonable searches and seizures. That case involved a GPS placed on the Jeep of suspected Washington, D.C. drug kingpin Antoine Jones. The ruling overturned Jones’ conviction and life sentence.

Lee’s case predated that ruling, so the admissibility of the marijuana remained in question until Thapar’s decision.

The case arose after a cooperating witness told investigators that Lee, who previously served 42 months in federal prison for gun and drug convictions, had been buying marijuana in Chicago and bringing it back to eastern Kentucky in his car.

CONTINUE READING THRU THIS LINK…..

James Higdon’s “The Cornbread Mafia: A Homegrown Syndicate’s Code of Silence and the Biggest Marijuana Bust in American History”

press release

April 16, 2012, 3:57 p.m. EDT

James Higdon’s “The Cornbread Mafia: A Homegrown Syndicate’s Code of Silence and the Biggest Marijuana Bust in American History” Available This Week

NEW YORK, NY, Apr 16, 2012 (MARKETWIRE via COMTEX) — ATTENTION JOURNALISTS AND PRODUCERS: 4/20 — “The Pot Holiday” — is this week! James Higdon is the perfect choice for any conversation about marijuana legalization. Call now to schedule an interview.

In the summer of 1987, Johnny Boone set out to grow and harvest one of the greatest outdoor marijuana crops in modern times. In doing so, he set into motion a series of events that defined him and his associates as the largest homegrown marijuana syndicate in American history, also known as the Cornbread Mafia.

Author James Higdon — whose relationship with Johnny Boone, currently a federal fugitive, made him the first journalist subpoenaed under the Obama administration — takes readers back to the 1970s and ’80s and the clash between federal and local law enforcement and a band of Kentucky farmers with moonshine and pride in their bloodlines. By 1989 the task force assigned to take down men like Johnny Boone had arrested sixty-nine men and one woman from busts on twenty-nine farms in ten states, and seized two hundred tons of pot. Of the seventy individuals arrested, zero talked. How it all went down is a tale of Mafia-style storylines emanating from the Bluegrass State, and populated by Vietnam veterans and weed-loving characters caught up in Tarantino-level violence and heartbreaking altruism. This work of dogged investigative journalism and history is told by Higdon in action-packed, colorful and riveting detail.

“James Higdon has written a compelling, fast-moving saga about how a backwoods band of outlaws, begat by Kentucky moonshiners of the 1920s, took over the marijuana business in the Midwest and led the Feds on the biggest pot chase in American history.” –Bruce Porter, author of BLOW: How a Small-Town Boy Made $100 Million with the Medellin Cocaine Cartel and Lost It All

James Higdon has worked for the Courier-Journal in Louisville and the New York Times, contributed to The Prairie Home Companion, researched the NYPD counter-terrorism and intelligence divisions for the new CBS series NYC 22 (produced by Robert De Niro and Jane Rosenthal), and is currently a contributing editor with PBS Frontline’s Tehran Bureau.

The Cornbread Mafia: A Homegrown Syndicate’s Code of Silence and the Biggest Marijuana Bust in American History Lyons Press – April 2012 – Cloth — 400 pages – $24.95 – ISBN-13: 978-0762778232

        
        Media Inquiries:
        Ellen Trachtenberg
        610-212-1823
        Email Contact
        
        
        


SOURCE: Globe Pequot Press